To appreciate programming as an intellectual activity in its own right … you must read and write computer programs - many of them.[ASS96]

For the past nine weeks I have been working on programming questions at HackerRank completing questions in the ‘practice area’ i.e I have not competed in any competitive programming competitions offered by the site. Today I reached the first milestone I had set, namely, to get a top 1000 ranking (96th percentile) in the algorithms sub domain.

First a brief introduction to HackerRank (1). The site is one of many competitive programming sites available currently. This is not, in any way, a post about the merits of one site vs another. As such I do not intend to compare HackerRank to any of its competitors.

HackerRank is divided into two areas. One is the competitive programming competitions and the other is the practice arena, an area of the site listing multiple discrete programming questions divided into domains. This post is concerning the practice arena. I will not be mentioning the competitions again and may at times take the liberty of referring to the practice arena as ’the site’ in general without further specification.

The site (I did warn you), is divided into domains. The three ‘big’ ones are algorithms, artificial intelligence, and functional programming. Each domain is separate in terms of score and rank. For each domain a user will have score (of points for completed questions) and a rank (of all users of that domain). Each domain is also divided into sub domains, such as sorting, graph theory etc. Questions are rated easy, medium, hard etc and allotted a maximum score. Partial solutions garner partial scores and multiple submissions are of course allowed. Also statistics on success rates of completion are listed for each question.


I focused on the algorithms domain. I used Golang for all questions. As stated above my first milestone was to get into the top 1000. During the nine weeks it took me to do this I was aided by the texts listed in the bibliography below. The primary aim of completing this milestone was to become a better programmer and more specifically to become a better programmer in Go.

Without further ado;

150 hours over nine weeks
140 questions attempted
12 000 lines of code

What I learned

All solutions must be complete i.e no libraries, so data structures and algorithms must be written from scratch. This means that I learned thoroughly, for example, how to implement and traverse a graph.

The importance of data structures quickly becomes very clear, most used were; queue, stack, tree (binary search tree, ordered statistical tree, n-ary tree), graph (directed/undirected, weighted/unweighted).

All questions read input from standard in and expect output on standard out. For simplicity I tended to use fmt.Fscanf. However on occasion IO was found to be a bottleneck and I learned that bufio.Scanner is faster.

To test each solution I used a trick from Donovan and Kernighan [DK16]. In the main file we declare two global variables in and out. Also main() is simply a call to another function;

var (
	in  io.Reader = os.Stdin
	out io.Writer = os.Stdout

func main() {

func solve() {
    // ...

Then in the test file, using table driven testing, we override in and out in order to supply test cases and check the output.

func Tes(t *testing.T) {
	var tests = []struct {
		input string
		want  string
	        {"1 2 3\n", "10\n"},
    		{"5 6 7\n", "11\n"},

	for _, test := range tests {
		out = new(bytes.Buffer)
		in = bytes.NewBufferString(test.input)

		if got := out.(*bytes.Buffer).String(); got != test.want {
			t.Errorf("input: %s\n got: %s\n want: %s\n",
				test.input, got, test.want)

Generally speaking the easy questions are solvable with an O(N^2) algorithm. Once onto the medium questions however typically an O(NlogN) solution is required. Often it suffices to look over the solution and change the algorithm as needed but at times bench marking is helpful. I learned that Go’s built in benchmark facilities are quick and easy to use and provided all one needs to get the running times down on trickier questions.

Bench marking can be implemented (assuming the question is coded as above) in Golang by simply adding to a test file the following function;

func BenchmarkSolve(b *testing.B) {
	for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
		input := "1 2 3\n"
		out = new(bytes.Buffer)
		in = bytes.NewBufferString(input)

A Bench mark file can be produced with $ go test -run=None -bench=Solve -cpuprofile=cpu.out. One can then view the output using go tool pprof -text -nodecount=20 ./prog.test cpu.out. Where prog.test is the executable that go test saves by default using the program name and the suffix .test. The -run=None flag stops all other tests from being run during the bench mark.


I found HackerRank to be well written, both the content and the site operations. The questions were well paced and progressed in difficulty at a nice rate. There are ample questions and a nice little dopamine release generated by each score increase to keep you coming back. A text book or two on data structures and algorithms is surely advisable. I found Golang to be very suitable and pleasant to work with even though it can be verbose at times. If you would like to deepen your understanding and quicken your algorithmic output I can wholeheartedly recommend a few weeks spent on HackerRank.


(1) I am not affiliated in any way with


[Ski08] - The Algorithm Design Manual, Steven S. Skiena
[CLRS09] - Introduction to Algorithms, Thomas H.Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, Clifford Stein
[Mor] - Open Data Structures, Pat Morin, Edition 0.1
[ASS96] - Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, Harold Abelson andGerald Jay Sussman with Julie Sussman.
[DK16] - The GO Programming Language, Alan A. A. Donovan, Brian W. Kernighan.